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Solar Panels Costs
Solar panels cost, on average, about $16,000, or between $3,500 to $35,000 depending on the type and model. While solar panels can help save you money on energy costs, it’s important to know the overall startup solar panel costs so you can plan a budget.
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Average Cost of Solar Panels
Cost of Solar Panels By Type
Monocrystalline Solar Panels
On average, monocrystalline solar panels (the most energy-efficient solar panel option) cost $1 to $1.50 per watt, meaning that outfitting a 6kW solar panel system (also known as a solar system) costs between $6,000 and $9,000.
Polycrystalline Solar Panels
Less energy-efficient than monocrystalline solar panels, polycrystalline solar panels cost $0.90 to $1 per watt, so outfitting a 6kW solar panel system would cost between $5,400 and $6,000 making it a more affordable option.
Thin-Film Solar Panels
On average, thin-film solar panels cost between $1 and $1.50 per watt, meaning that outfitting a 6kW solar panel system costs between $6,000 and $9,000. Thin-film solar panels are more inexpensive than their counterparts, but require a large amount of space, and hence, are primarily used in industrial settings.
Solar Panel Installation Costs
Installing solar panels can cost anywhere between $15,000 and $25,000. This price will depend on location, with solar power costing more in regions farther from the equator, like Alaska, and costing less for sun-drenched regions and how many solar panels you’ll need.
Factors That Affect Solar Panel Costs
Multiple unique factors go into the price of solar panels, which are related to your electricity use and home. Check out the things to consider when calculating costs:
The cost of solar panels is dependent on the solar panel company you choose. From the solar equipment system itself to installation costs to add-ons, the price will vary from company to company.
Size, Weight And Number of Panels
When assessing solar panel cost, the size, weight and number of panels are things to consider. For instance, when determining how many solar panels you’ll need, there are a few pieces of information you’ll need to know:
- How much energy your household uses
- How much space you have on your roof
- How many hours of sun your home gets, and the wattage and relative efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) solar panels you’ll be installing
Once those are determined, you can begin to calculate the cost.
Federal Solar Tax Credit
Installing solar panels earns you a federal solar tax credit. That means you’ll get credit for your income taxes, which lowers your tax bill. You can qualify for the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) as long as your solar system is new or being used for the first time between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2023. Unless Congress renews the ITC, it expires in 2024.
Type of Panels
There are three main types of solar panels available for residential use. They are monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin-film. The most energy-efficient solar panel option, monocrystalline solar panels, costs $1 to $1.50 per watt. Less energy-efficient, polycrystalline solar panels cost $0.90 to $1 per watt. Thin-film solar panels cost between $1 and $1.50 per watt.
Solar Panel Manufacturer
Since solar panels come in varying quality, the cost can depend highly on the solar panel’s manufacturer. Although most manufacturers generally see similar cost ranges, the better the solar panel quality, the higher the price.
The efficiency of solar panels is determined by the amount of sunlight reflected on the panels’ surface, which is then transformed into electrical or thermal energy. Monocrystalline solar panels are the most efficient, but their price point is high because of their complex construction. Polycrystalline solar panels are simpler to create, making them less expensive than monocrystalline. Thin-film PV cells are easier and less expensive to produce but are the least efficient type of solar panel.
Solar panel costs also vary by state due to local quoting trends and system size differences. States have different average system sizes and incentives, causing prices to differ from state to state.
Your roof’s characteristics, like the roof’s pitch, will also determine solar panel cost. Typically, your solar company will charge for the difficulty of the installation and having a complex roof will make your system cost more.
When to Install Solar Panels
Contrary to popular belief, winter is actually the best time to install solar panels. There is simply less demand for this service in winter, so the installation should cost less as a whole. Even if you live in a region that tends to be cloudy and/or chilly, your solar panels will still be able to generate energy and in some cases, will even generate more energy than they would in warmer months.
Installing solar panels during winter is, in addition to being cost-effective, efficient. With solar installation companies doing fewer jobs in the off-season, your panels are likely to be installed faster, and will be up-and-running in no time.
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How Much Do Solar Panels Save?
Though solar panels cost money upfront, they are certain to save you money in the long-term. The question of how much solar panels will save you depends on a number of factors, including the hours of daily direct sunlight available to the panels, the angle of your roof and the size of your solar panel system. The most important factor, though, in determining how much money solar panels will save you, is simply your local electricity rates.
In order to determine how much money your solar panels will save you each year, calculate how much you spend on electricity annually (for reference, the typical American family spends about $1,450 a year on electricity). Then, determine what your current utility rate is, keeping in mind that utility rates tend to increase 2.2% or so each year (yet another reason to install solar panels).
Use an online calculator to estimate your annual savings by plugging in information like your location, energy usage and the current average price of solar panel installation in your area.
A common misconception is that solar panels will eradicate your electricity bills altogether. While this is sometimes the case, solar panels will significantly reduce your electricity bill each month, and are worth the investment as a whole.
Whether you’re trying to reduce your electricity costs, carbon emissions or both, solar panels can generate major savings. The primary factor in determining how much money a solar panel system will save you, in the long run, is the cost of electricity, which can vary significantly based on your location.
If you live in a region with middle- to upper-level utility rates, you can pretty much guarantee that a solar panel will save you big bucks over time. Solar panels tend to be worth the investment as long as you go about the installation process wisely.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ’s)
How much energy can you save with solar panels?
The most significant benefit of installing solar panels is that you will save energy and, in turn, electricity costs. If your solar panels are large enough, you may be able to produce enough electricity for your whole home. But, even if your solar panels switch between the electricity from your solar panels to using energy from the National Grid, you’ll undoubtedly use less electricity and pay lower bills.
How can you pay for solar panels?
When purchasing a solar panel system, you have multiple options: an upfront cash payment, a solar loan, and other financing types, too, some of which may make more sense for you than solar-specific loans.
Do solar panels increase the value of your home?
Solar panels help reduce your monthly electricity bills and can potentially increase the home’s value more than comparable homes with no solar panels.
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How much do solar panels cost? Solar panels typically cost between £2,900 and £6,700, according to data sourced from the Energy Saving Trust, though they can cost as much as £9,000. The average three-bedroom house usually requires a £5,420 system, which consists of 10 panels and requires around 20m² of roof space.
A single solar panel costs between $2.67 and $3.43 to buy and install. The price of the whole system is based on its capacity, measured in watts. How big a system you need will be based on how much energy you use, your roof's sunlight exposure and panel efficiency.
Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic or PV panels, are made to last more than 25 years. In fact, many solar panels installed as early as the 1980s are still working at expected capacity. Not only are solar panels remarkably reliable, solar panel longevity has increased dramatically over the last 20 years.
What are the main disadvantages to solar energy? Solar panels cannot store electricity, so you will have reduced power output in cloudy weather and zero power output at night. Because of this, most residential solar systems require a solar battery.
How Much Do Solar Panels Cost per kW System? A standard 250W solar panel in 2022 costs £400-£500, but can vary depending on the type and size of the whole system. One of the most common domestic sizes is a 4kW solar panel system, which costs around £6,400 and will cover around 29 square metres of your roof.
In India, monthly power consumption of an average household is 250 kWh. Therefor an average Indian house needs approximately 2.3 kW of solar system which is 7 solar panels each of 330 watts.
While the national average is 9.5 years, it takes only 8.4 years in Plymouth, Exeter and Truro (the top three) for a domestic solar panel installation to pay for itself.
£10,792.00 including v.a.t. Full 10kw solar kit for use with on or off-grid systems: 10kw of solar will take up around 70 sqm of roof space.
Can I Get Free Solar Panels in the UK? Companies offered free solar panels in the past, but this service is not available in the UK any longer. As solar panels are becoming more affordable, the government has drastically reduced the Feed-In Tariff (FIT).
Solar panels generate “free” electricity, but there are still costs associated with installing them. Prices vary based on a few key factors: efficiency, capacity and your location.
The average cost to install solar panels in the United States is about $12,000 after federal tax incentives.. Electricity needs Solar panel costs average between $2.51 and $3.31 per watt.. After tax credits, a 2-kW system averages $4,381.. Expect to pay around $11,000 for a 5-kW system, and a 10-kW system costs around $22,000.. Many solar energy companies provide a free calculator tool to help you easily estimate the cost and savings of installing solar panels on your home.. The average American electric bill is between $100 and $200 per month, and the average yearly energy cost is about $1,500.. Taking into account the federal tax credit for installing solar panels, most Americans’ solar panels start paying for themselves within seven years.. If your solar energy system provides more electrical power than your home uses when the sun is shining, the utility company will pay you for that extra power at what’s called “avoided cost.” This rate is usually a little less than half of the cost the utility company charges for power.. Next, electrical wiring is installed that connects your panels to your power system.. The average total cost to install a residential system for solar panels before tax credits or rebates is comparable to the price tag on a new car.
Complete cost breakdown of installing solar power system for a 1500, 2500 and 3000 square foot house and compared the costs with utility grid electricity
Average 1500 square foot house requires 6 kilowatt loads and the cost of solar power system ranges roughly from $7,500 to $21,000 depending on solar installers, type of solar panel, size of solar array, solar battery type, solar inverter watt and type, charge controller and your energy usage behavior.. in solar panel system can also not be ignored.. As thin film panels are 50% less efficient as compared to monocrystalline and cost $0.75 to $1 per kW so price range becomes:(17 panels * 1.5) * 400W per panel * ($0.75) = $7650(26 panels * 1.5) * 400W per panel * ($1) = $15600. We have calculated the average cost of solar panel installation as $26700.. Other components of solar panel system (e.g. batteries, charge controller, and inverter) will add up the cost while making this system work.. We have calculated the average cost of solar panel installation as $30,500.
If you're wondering whether solar panels save you money, the answer is yes. However, the amount that you'll save depends on where you live.
Solar panels cost money upfront, but will save you money on energy bills in the long term The average home can save between $10,000 and $30,000 over the lifetime of your solar panel system Generally, higher local electricity prices means higher potential for solar savings Start comparing custom quotes on the EnergySage Marketplace to see your estimated savings from solar power. Because the more you pay for electricity, the more you can offset by producing your own solar energy.. Multiply that by the national average electricity rate as of October 2021 ($0.1411 per kWh) and you’ll find that the typical American family is spending just over $1,500 a year on electricity alone.. Because of the nature of solar as an up-front investment, the only costs associated with a solar system will be the installation costs and any added electricity costs in the event that your panels do not completely offset 100% of your electricity use.. System size: 6 kilowatts (kW) Electricity demand: 10,649 kWh per year (the national average) Utility rate inflation: 1.3% Percent needs met by solar panels: 97% (EnergySage Marketplace average) Electricity rate: State average as of October 2021 ( according to EIA ) Ownership of the solar panels is assumed. If you require more energy than your solar panels are capable of producing, you will still owe money on your electric bill.. And in some cases, it may still be high if you significantly increase your energy usage or if your system was not sized properly to meet your energy needs.
Can solar panels help you save money or is the cost not worth the outlay?
While everyone's circumstances are different, this guide aims to give clear examples that show how your specific situation could benefit – or not – from investing in solar panels for your home .. That means you stand to keep any profits from selling your energy produced back to the grid.. The LG model costs £318 per panel, meaning 10 panels will cost £3,180 plus installation.. Again this is likely to cover electricity bills but not produce too much more for the SEG payments.. The location you have these installed likely won't change the price too much but based on the amount of sun you get, it can affect how much you stand to save in bills and make in selling back electricity to the grid.. Factor in the money you're saving on your electricity bills and this can add up to an amount which means paying off the cost of panel installation quickly.. But of course how much energy you produce to sell isn't the same as the energy produced by your solar panels.. But with the average charge for electricity greater than the amount paid to buy it back, you're still looking at a while to pay back the initial solar panel cost.. It can take years to break even on the cost of your solar panels and their installation cost.. Then, of course, there is the amount you're getting paid for the energy you sell back under the SEG.. Based on the same solar panel installation cost this can be paid back in 10 years.. Since the prices of panels have dropped so much the newest scheme, SEG, gives money back for selling electricity but won't cover the up front costs of solar panels.. Since the solar panels will save you money on electricity bills, and can make you money through the SEG offering, you can pay off that loan over the years.. If you use very little power anyway, then the cost of the panels and installation may not be worth it for the amount you pay on your bills.
How to calculate the number of solar panels needed to cover the home energy usage for your specific home.
The average American home needs between 16 and 20 solar panels based on the average electricity usage of 893 kilowatt-hours (kWh) per month.. The average home in the U.S needs between 16 and 20 solar panels to cover its electric bills.. Your energy usage : The more electricity you use, the more solar panels you need to cover your electricity costs.. Now that you know how much electricity your home uses in a month, you need to find the amount of sunlight your area receives.. The monthly peak sun hours you get tells you how many kilowatt-hours of electricity 1 kilowatt (kW) of solar panels will produce in your area in one month.. So, if your state receives 150 monthly peak sunlight hours, 1 kW of solar will produce 150 kWh of electricity per month.. Since you now know how much 1 kW of solar will produce in your area, you can determine what size solar system you need to cover your electricity needs.. Divide your monthly electricity usage by the monthly peak sun hours in your area to find the system size you need in kW.. So, you know the size of the solar system you need to cover your energy usage.. To figure out how many solar panels you’ll need, take the solar system size and multiply it by 1,000 to convert the size from kilowatts to watts.. 6,610 watts of solar / 370-watt solar panel = 18 solar panels. That’s the number of solar panels you will need to power your home.. To find out how much roof space your solar system needs, just multiply the number of panels you need by 17.55 square feet, which is the area of most residential solar panels sold today.. The table below shows how many solar panels you need based on the size of the system, as well as an estimate of the amount of power the solar array will produce.. Number of panels and roof space required based on system sizeSystem sizeEstimated monthly energy productionNumber of panels*Roof space required4 kW480 - 600 kWh11193 sq.
The price of solar panels depends, among others, on the square metres and system type. Check out the average prices of PV in the UK and the estimated installation costs & savings.
3kW system 3kW system: The estimated costs for installation of 3kW Solar Panel system is around £5000 - £6000 .. 4kW system 4kW system: The estimated costs for installation of 4kW Solar Panel system is around £6000 - £8000 .. 5kW system 5kW system: The estimated costs for installation of 5kW Solar Panel system is around £8000 - £9000 .. 6kW system 6kW system: The estimated costs for installation of 6kW Solar Panel system is around £9000 - £11,000 .. In the table below, you can see the breakdown of the average prices of solar panels , the roof space they require, the average savings on your electricity bills, and the savings you can expect after 20 years.. For example, a 3kW solar panel system will be cheaper to install, but you will not be able to earn as much as you could with a 6kW system over the course of 25 years.. An average system size of 4kW will cost around £6,000 to install.. If you’re looking to install additional components while installing the solar panels, this will increase your cost of equipment but can decrease the installation costs.. Your savings after 25 years with SEG can range from £5,993 to £14,533 depending on your system and tariff.. Your household electricity consumption If you use your appliances during the day when your panels are active How efficient your type of solar panel is If you generate an income from solar panel funding schemes. If you have a 3kW system installed, you can earn £75 per year through the SEG.. For example, the average household in 2022 uses 2,900kWh of electricity each year and could export approximately 1,500kWh of electricity if they have a 4kWp solar system.. Depending on the size of your solar panel system and the export tariff, your solar panels can be paid off after 15-25 years .. However, this can change based on a number of factors such as grants and schemes, efficiency of your panels, the average system cost and more.
"Solar farms" can refer to both community solar and larger utility-scale solar installations, usually installed in fields.
Solar farms are most often community solar projects or utility-scale solar power plants.. This general concept of a solar farm could be associated with both residential community solar and community solar projects that have a few hundred solar panels, and larger utility-scale solar that has thousands of solar panels.. There are two main types of solar farms around the country: utility-scale solar farms and community solar farms .. A community solar farm —sometimes referred to as a “solar garden” or “roofless solar”—is a farm whose electricity is shared by more than one household.. A utility-scale solar farm (often referred to as simply a solar power plant) is a large solar farm consisting of many solar panels and is owned by a utility that sends electricity to the grid.. While solar farms are effective forms of renewable energy, the construction and installation of them can have a negative impact on the environment due to the space needed for a solar farm, the materials and energy required to produce solar panels, how to dispose of solar panels when they are replaced and even contaminated groundwater due to the maintenance requirements of a solar panel farm.
Your electric bill, location and tax incentives can impact solar panel costs. Learn how to estimate how much you’ll spend and save by switching to solar at home.
On average, solar panel installation and the system together can run from $15,000 to $25,000, according to the latest information from the Center for Sustainable Energy .. Before you make the leap, learn how your electric bill , location and incentives can impact your wallet over time.. Here are six steps to take to determine whether you’ll save more than you spend on solar panels.. "Similarly, if energy consumption changes, the amount of savings can also vary.". More sun means more energy produced and a greater potential to save with solar.. When calculating the total price, consider how much energy you regularly consume — your usage is listed on your monthly utility bill — and what size system will generate the amount needed.. That cost is before any tax credits or incentives.. A substantial update to an existing energy-related tax break that was set to expire at the end of 2023, the Residential Clean Energy Credit allows taxpayers who have solar (and other approved clean energy equipment) installed to recoup 30% of the cost in the form of a federal tax credit .. What that means: A solar setup that costs $15,000 would yield a $4,500 credit (30% of $15,000) that you can take advantage of come tax time to reduce any federal taxes owed.. Look up credits available in your state by reviewing the database of state incentives for renewables and efficiency .. There have been varying tariffs on imported solar cells and panels over the last decade affecting costs and supply.. Going solar isn’t the only potential way to save money.. Learn more about what you can do to lower your bills .
As more homeowners consider installing solar panels, one question commonly asked is, “how many solar panels do I need?” ✓ Get answers now with Nexamp!
As more homes throughout the country consider installing solar panels, one question commonly asked is, “how many solar panels do I need?”.. How many solar panels do I need for a specifically sized solar system?. To determine the number of panels you need to achieve a given solar system size, divide it by the wattage of each panel (which averages around 320 watts).. Some homeowners might also ask, “how many square feet of solar panels do I need?” To answer this question, you first need to know that an average residential solar panel is around 17.5 feet.. Thus, in our above example, a 12,800 kWh consumption will need 437.5 square feet of solar panels (or 25 panels x 17.5 feet). With a panel wattage of 320 and a production ratio of 1.4, the number of solar panels you’ll need is:. You can use the calculator below to quickly determine your solar panel needs based on your average monthly kWh usage and the nearest city from your house.. Once you get the estimated monthly kWh usage, simply plug it into the solar panel kWh calculator above.. Apart from estimating how many solar panels you need, you should also consider the weight of the panels themselves.. Through Community Solar with Nexamp, the process is similar to determine the size of a subscribers’ share of a solar farm is similar to determining the number of rooftop solar panels.
The truth is, it depends on a few aspects. Your solar installation’s energy production, your local electric rate, and your household’s energy consumption.
Average Electricity Bill by State 2018 Data** StateAverage Monthly Electric BillAverage Yearly Electric CostArizona$110$1,320California$170 $2,040Colorado$105$1,260Connecticut$186$2,232Delaware$110$1,320Florida$107$1,248Hawaii $283$3,396Illinois$112$1,344Maryland$117$1,404Massachusetts$194$2,328Nevada$112$1,344New Hampshire $176$2,112New Jersey$140$1,680New Mexico$110$1,320New York$160$1,920Oregon$96$1,110Pennsylvania$124$1,488Rhode Island$192$2,304South Carolina$110$1,320Texas$100$1,200 Utah$93$1,116Vermont$158$1,896Washington, DC$113$1,356Wisconsin$128$1,536 Your electric bill with solar panels is dependent on a few factors.. When considering what your electric bill will be with a solar installation, check out your cost benefit of a home battery.. Yet, a home solar installation that covers 100% of your energy consumption needs is the straightest route to lower electric bills.. Speaking of average, the average energy consumption in a U.S. household multiplied by the average electric rate per kilowatt hour equals an average American monthly electric bill of $113.20.. Moreover, with a grid connected home solar system, what the electric company does see is how much excess electricity your solar installation gives to the grid.. Under a Solar PPA , you pay the solar company a fixed rate per kilowatt hour generated by your home solar installation.. Currently, the residential federal solar tax credit gives you a dollar-for-dollar reduction against your federal income tax equal to 26% of the final cost of solar energy systems you install on your home.. These reduced initial costs available now, plus your lower electric bills from a home solar installation, make going solar today a wise decision.. In the big picture, your electric bill with a home solar system is based on your energy consumption needs and your electricity production goals.. After installing solar, feel good supporting a sustainable, clean environment by comparing your previous year’s electric bill with your new “solar panel bill” for the same month.
Will adding solar panels increase property value? Learn all the benefits and costs of adding solar energy to your home.
This includes award-winning real estate agent Janet Anderson , from Tracy , California, who is a single-family home expert with 16 years of experience.. As more information becomes available, many are installing solar panels as a viable energy option while also weighing the cost of installation.. The value you get back will depend on the choices you make, including buying or leasing, the system you choose, and your total investment.. According to Anderson, most people will add solar to save energy, but may not see a dollar-for-dollar return on their upfront investment, especially if they move from their home soon after installing their system.. If the roof will need to be replaced in 3 to 5 years, then you will want to do that first.. For example, according to the Solar Energy Industries Association, installing solar panels in 2010 cost compared to about half that cost today.. Since solar panels are considered an improvement to your home (if you own them), you’ll typically need to increase your homeowner’s insurance .. “Some people just don’t like the whole idea of having a lease; I mean they’d rather pay the electric company,” says Anderson, explaining that the buyer is typically asked to take over the solar lease contract.. “Some of these leasing companies have gotten better about it, so they’ll transfer it.. Alexander explains that once a home seller has their solar panels installed, they can monitor the system through a phone app to see exactly what their system is doing.
The Tesla Solar Roof, designed by Tesla, offers a sustainable and energy-efficient alternative to modern day roofing. The roof comes with solar glass shingles and an integrated Powerwall battery to store generated energy. Though expensive—a two-story, 2,000 square foot, 11.28 kW Solar Roof costs jus
The Tesla Solar Roof is constructed with a combination of glass solar tiles, glass roofing tiles, and architectural-grade steel tiles.. Rather than directly publishing rates, Tesla provides a Solar Roof calculator on their website that estimates the cost of installing a solar roof on your home.. Tesla Solar Panels can be installed on top of existing roofs and are significantly cheaper than a Solar Roof—though still expensive compared to other solar panels on the market.. Due to supply chain costs and enhancements made to the solar roofs, Tesla has drastically increased the price of its solar roofs.. When considering installing a Tesla Solar Roof, its size will be determined by a few key factors, such as where you live, the characteristics of your roof, and your current energy use.. If you’re willing to pay the high price point, need to replace your roof and like the idea and sleek aesthetic of Tesla’s solar shingles, then it may be worth it to get a Solar Roof.. If the Solar Roof replaced your pre-existing roof, then your roof will also be good for at least another 20 years.. The amount of electricity a Tesla Solar Roof generates depends on the amount of solar shingles that have been installed.
The average solar panel cost has declined dramatically over the last decade, and solar systems now offer more value to homeowners than they ever have before
That said, solar panels are only one component of a complete solar system, so there are other solar installation costs to consider as well.. In this article, we’ll take a look at why solar panel cost has fallen so dramatically, the key terms for evaluating the cost of solar systems, and the many factors that will ultimately impact the price you pay for your solar system.. Price per watt ($/W) is useful for comparing multiple solar offers Cost per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) is useful for comparing the cost of solar versus grid energy. The price per watt (PPW) of a solar system is the price that the homeowner will pay for every watt of solar being installed.. Calculating the price per watt for a solar system is very straightforward — it’s simply the gross system cost (contract value) divided by the number of watts in the system.. Solar Price Per WattSolar Price Per Kilowatt-Hour GROSS system cost / Total system wattageNET system cost / Total lifetime system productionUseful for comparing solar quotes against one anotherUseful for comparing solar versus utility billPertains to the POWER of a systemPertains to the PRODUCTION of a systemTypically $3.00-4.00/wattTypically $0.06-0.08/kWh Another measure of the relative value of a solar system is its price per kilowatt-hour (kWh).. Whereas the price per watt considers the solar system’s size, the price per kWh shows the price of the solar system per unit of energy it produces over a given period of time.. Now that we understand how to evaluate the relative cost of solar systems and the factors that contribute to overall installation costs, let’s consider the big question: how much do solar panels cost to install on your home?. Solar system costs vary widely depending on many factors like the amount of energy needed, the amount of roof space available, the kinds of panels and inverters being used, and whether a battery is included with the solar system.. Knowing the key terms for evaluating solar system costs and the primary components of solar systems helps to understand the most important considerations that factor into the cost of solar systems.